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Past: Cael 1 is the thirty-second skill (assuming read left to right) in the language tree for Welsh. It has three lessons and teaches the verb cael in the past tense, as it is irregular in this tense.

Grammar Notes[]

Cael is irregular in the simple past tense as well:

English Welsh
I got/had Ces i
You got/had Cest ti
He/She got/had Caeth/Cafodd e/o/hi
We got/had Caethon/Cawson ni
You got/had Caethoch/Cawsoch chi
They got/had Caethon/Cawson nhw

As for other past tense forms, you will give it soft mutation in questions or after mi (which is a pre-verbal particle often used in northern and some mid-Wales dialects to mark affirmative verbs):

  • Mi gest ti ffôn symudol. = You got a mobile phone.
  • Gaethon ni anrheg? = Did we get a gift?

Unlike other past tenses, though, as a negative, it receives aspirate mutation instead:

  • Naddo, ches i ddim uwd ddoe. = No, I did not have porridge yesterday.

Also remember that direct objects after cael take soft mutation as well:

  • Ces i gyri ddoe. = I had curry yesterday.

Lessons[]

Lesson 1[]

  • ces i = I got/had
  • cest ti = you got/had
  • cafodd e/o/hi = he/she got/had
  • cyri/cyrri = curry
  • i frecwast = for breakfast
  • i swper = for supper
  • uwd = porridge
  • diwetha = last

Lesson 2[]

  • mi = see above
  • salad = salad
  • caethoch chi = you got
  • caethon ni = we got/had
  • caethon nhw = they got/had
  • caeth e/o/hi = he/she got/had
  • ffôn symudol = mobile phone
  • anrheg = present
  • fel = as
  • ches i ddim = I did not get/have
  • chaethoch chi ddim = you did not get/have

Lesson 3[]

  • syndod = surprise
  • wythnos = week
  • cawson ni = we got/had
  • cawson nhw = they got/had
  • cawsoch chi = you got/had
  • do = yes (in simple past tense)
  • naddo = no (in simple past tense)

References[]

Duolingo Lesson: www.duolingo.com/skill/cy/Past-Cael-1

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