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Work 3 is the 101st skill (assuming read left to right) in the Japanese language course. It has 6 lessons.

Grammar Notes[]

Summarize, but do not quote, any grammar notes provided with this skill. Notes from Duolingo are copyrighted, and cannot be added here verbatim without permission. Make sure to reference any tips and notes from Duolingo or anywhere else.

Doing a Verb While Doing Another, Omitting -て[]

(はは)六十五(ろくじゅうご)(さい)退職(たいしょく)して年金生活(ねんきんせいかつ)(はい)った。= At 65, mother entered pension life while retiring.

Can be simplified to:

母は六十五歳で退職年金生活に入った。= At 65, mother entered pension life while retiring.

となる Vs. になる[]


となる implies "has reached a point of". That is, it may have been changing for a while, but it has now crossed a definite threshold that has made something now the case when it wasn't before. になる is just a more general sense of "become", so it could just be a gradual process with no real "line in the sand" or defining moment..[1]

Omitting Question Markers—("ありますか"/"ですか")[]

In Japanese you can simply evoke an idea to ask a question, instead of asking the question in full:
ビデオを編集(へんしゅう)したのはありましたか? = Did you edit the video? ("The act of editing the video, did it exist?")
ビデオを編集したの? = Did you edit the video? ("The act of editing the video (did it exist)?")


Lesson 1[]

  • 年金 (nen-kin) = pension
  • 両親は年金で生活している。(ryō-shin-wa-nen-kin-de-sei-ka-tsu-shi-te-i-ru) = My parents are living off their pension. ("My parents, the pension, in the manner thereof, are practising their lifestyle.")
  • それは何という意味ですか?(so-re-wa-nan-to-yu-i-mi-de-su-ka) = What does that mean?
  • 茂という人に会った。(shi-ge-ru-to-iu-hi-to-ni-a-tta) = I met a person named Shigeru. ("I met a person who says 'Shigeru'.")
  • 退職することした (tai-sho-ku-su-ru-ko-to-ni-shi-ta) = I decided to retire. ("I decided at stuff like retiring.")
  • 退職後 (tai-sho-ku-go) = the period after retirement ("post-retirement")
  • 退職後は夫と田舎で暮らすつもりです。(tai-sho-ku-go-wa-tsu-ma-to-i-na-ka-de-ku-ra-su-tsu-mo-ri-de-su) = After retirement, I intend to live with my husband in the countryside.
  • 母は六十五歳で退職し年金生活に入った。(ha-ha-wa-ro-ku-jū-go-sai-de-ta-i-sho-ku-shi-nen-kin-sei-ka-tsu-ni-ha-i-tta) = My mother retired and became a pensioner at the age of sixty-five. ("At 65, mother entered pension life while retiring.")
  • ...を与えられなかった (...-wo-a-ta-e-ra-re-na-ka-tta) = He was not granted ...
  • ...に与えた (...-ni-a-ta-e-ta) = I provided to ...
  • ...に与えました (...-ni-a-ta-e-ma-shi-ta) = I provided to ...
  • 従業員 (jū-gyō-in) = employee
  • 従業員専用。(jū-gyō-in-sen-yō) = Employees only. ("Employees-reserved.")
  • [与える, 与えられる, 与えないで]

Lesson 2[]

  • 会社員 (kai-sha-in) = office worker
  • 公務員 (kō-mu-in) = government employee / public servant
  • 公務員は年金を与えられる。(kō-mu-in-wa-nen-kin-wo-a-ta-e-ra-re-ru) = Government employees are granted pensions.
  • 彼女は地方公務員です。(ka-no-jo-wa-chi-hō-kō-mu-in-de-su) = She is a regional government employee.
  • 方法 (hō-hō) = way / technique / method
  • ストレスを和らげる一番よい方法は何ですか?(su-to-re-su-wo-ya-wa-ra-ge-ru-i-chi-ban-yoi-hō-hō-wa-nan-de-su-ka) = What's the best way to relieve stress?
  • 他に方法がない。(ho-ka-ni-hō-hō-ga-nai) = There is no other way.
  • 彼女の方法は科学的ではない。(ka-no-jo-no-hō-hō-wa-ka-ga-ku-te-ki-de-wa-nai) = Her method is not scientific.
  • 過労 (ka-rō) = overwork
  • 過労死 (ka-rō-shi) = death from overwork
  • 過労死は深刻な社会問題だ。(ka-rō-shi-wa-shin-ko-ku-na-sha-kai-mon-dai-da) = Death from overwork is a serious societal problem.
  • 深刻な (shin-ko-ku-na) = serious
  • 深刻な問題だと思いますよ。(shin-ko-ku-na-mon-dai-da-to-o-moi-ma-su-yo) = I think that it is a serious problem.
  • 深刻な環境問題となっている。(shin-ko-ku-na-kan-kyō-mon-dai-to-na-tte-i-ru) = It has become a serious environmental issue.
  • 出張中 (shuch-chō-chū) = away from business ("the midst of a business trip")
  • 父は出張中です。(chi-chi-wa-shuch-chō-chū-de-su) = My father is away on business. ("Regarding my father, it is the midst of a business trip.")
  • 出張 (shuch-chō) = a business trip

Lesson 3[]

  • 同僚 (dō-ryō) = colleague
  • こちらが同僚の田中でございます。(ko-chi-ra-ga-dō-ryō-no-ta-na-ka-de-go-zai-ma-su) = This is my colleague Mr. Tanaka.
  • 帰りに同僚たちといっぱい飲んだ。(ka-e-ri-ni-dō-ryō-ta-chi-to-i-ppai-non-da) = I had a drink with my co-workers after work.
  • ...へ転勤になった (...-e-ten-kin-ni-na-tta) = I was transferred to ...
  • ...へ転勤になりました (...-e-ten-kin-ni-na-ri-ma-shi-ta) = I was transferred to ...
  • 四月に地方の支店に転勤になった。(shi-ga-tsu-ni-chi-hō-no-shi-ten-ni-ten-kin-ni-na-tta) = I was transferred to a regional branch in April.
  • 面接 (men-se-tsu) = interview
  • 我々は午後に面接を行います。(wa-re-wa-re-wa-go-go-ni-men-se-tsu-wo-o-ko-nai-ma-su) = We will conduct/hold interviews in the afternoon.
  • 支店 (shi-ten) = company branch
  • 就職 (shū-sho-ku) = job finding
  • 就職面接のために背広を買った。(shū-sho-ku-men-se-tsu-no-ta-me-ni-se-bi-ro-wo-ka-tta) = I bought a suit for job interviews. ("I bought a suit for interviews of job finding.")

Lesson 4[]

  • 編集者 (hen-shū-sha) = editor
  • ...を編集した (...-wo-hen-shū-shi-ta) = I edited ...
  • 編集 (hen-shū) = the act of editing
  • ビデオを編集したの?(bi-de-o-wo-hen-shū-shi-ta-no) = Did you edit the video? ("The act of editing the video?")
  • 彼女は新聞の編集の仕事をしている。(ka-no-jo-wa-shin-bun-no-hen-shū-no-shi-go-to-wo-shi-te-i-ru) = She is working to edit a newspaper. ("She is doing the work concerning the act of editing for the newspaper.")
  • 募集中 (bo-shū-chū) = the act of recruiting ("the midst of the act of recruiting")
  • ...を募集している (...-wo-bo-shū-shi-te-i-ru) = I am recruiting ...
  • 労働者 (rō-dō-sha) = worker / labourer
  • 労働 (rō-dō) = labour
  • ...を組織しました (...-so-shi-ki-shi-ma-shi-ta) = I organised ... / I formed ... / I put in place ... / I established ...
  • 政治家は新しい政党を組織しました。(sei-ji-ka-wa-a-ta-ra-shī-sei-tō-wo-so-shi-ki-shi-ma-shi-ta) = The politicians organized/formed a new political party.
  • 組合 (ku-mi-ai) = union
  • 労働者は組合を組織した。(rō-dō-sha-wa-ku-mi-ai-wo-so-shi-ki-shi-ta) = The workers organized a union.
  • 組合員 (ku-mi-ai-in) = union member ("member of union")

Lesson 5[]

  • 件 (ken) = matter / affair
  • その件は彼に関係がない。(so-no-ken-wa-ka-re-ni-kan-kei-ga-nai) = That matter has nothing to do with him. ("That matter, regarding it, there exists no relationship to him. / ...no connection with him.")
  • あの件はどうなりましたか?(a-no-ken-wa-dō-na-ri-ma-shi-ta-ka) = What became of that matter? / What happened with that matter?
  • 店員 (ten-in) = salesperson / clerk / shop assistant
  • あそこの店員に聞いてみたら?(a-so-ko-no-ten-in-ni-ki-i-te-mi-ta-ra) = Why don't you try asking that salesperson over there? [Colloquial contraction of "あそこの店員に聞いてみたらどうですか?"]
  • 私はコンビニの店員をしたことがある。(wa-ta-shi-wa-kon-bi-ni-no-ten-in-wo-shi-ta-ko-to-ga-a-ru) = I have worked as a clerk at a convenience store. ("I did a Kombini's shop assistant.")
  • 持ち主 (mo-chi-nu-shi) = owner / possessor
  • その家の持ち主は私だ。(so-no-ie-no-mo-chi-nu-shi-wa-wa-ta-shi-da) = The owner of that house is me.
  • ...を建設している (...-wo-ken-se-tsu-shi-te-i-ru) = I am constructing ...
  • 建設中 (ken-se-tsu-chū) = under construction ("in the midst of the act of construction")
  • 転職をした (ten-sho-ku-wo-shi-ta) = I changed jobs
  • 彼は弁護士から転職して料理人になった人です。(ka-re-wa-ben-go-shi-ka-ra-ten-sho-ku-shi-te-ryō-ri-nin-ni-na-tta-hi-to-de-su) = He is someone who left his job as a lawyer and became a chef. ("He is a cooking-man-became-while-leaving-from-lawyer person.")
  • 履歴 (ri-re-ki) = personal history
  • 彼女は変わった履歴の持ち主です。(ka-no-jo-wa-ka-wa-tta-ri-re-ki-no-mo-chi-nu-shi-de-su) = She has an unusual/unique personal history. ("She is the owner of a transformed/changed/weird personal history.")
  • 履歴書 (ri-re-ku-sho) = résumé / CV / personal history

Lesson 6[]

  • 日程調整 (ni-ttei-chō-sei) = schedule adjustment
  • 機械を設計した (ki-kai-wo-se-kkei-shi-ta) = I designed this machine
  • ...によって (...-ni-yo-tte) = by the intermediary/assistance of ... [in French, 'à travers ...']
  • その建物は有名な建築家によって設計された。(so-no-ta-te-mo-no-wa-yū-mei-na-ken-chi-ku-ka-ni-yo-tte-se-kkei-sa-re-ta) = That building was designed by a famous architect. ("That building, regarding it, a famous architect, by intermediary/assistance of them, it was designed.")
  • ...を経営している (kei-ei-shi-te-i-ru) = I manage/am managing ...
  • 建築中 (ken-chi-ku-chū) = under construction
  • その家は建築中です。(so-no-ie-wa-ken-chi-ku-chū-de-su) = That house is under construction.
  • 建築家 (ken-chi-ku-ka) = architect
  • みんながパーティーに参加できるよう、日程を調整しなければならない。(min-na-ga-pā-tī-ni-san-ka-de-ki-ru-yō-ni-ttei-wo-chō-sei-shi-na-ke-re-ba-na-ra-nai) = We need to adjust the schedule so that everyone can attend the party.
  • [建築]