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Ideas 1 is the 97th skill (assuming read left to right) in the Japanese language course. It has 7 lessons.

Grammar Notes[]

Summarize, but do not quote, any grammar notes provided with this skill. Notes from Duolingo are copyrighted, and cannot be added here verbatim without permission. Make sure to reference any tips and notes from Duolingo or anywhere else.

Softening One's Speech with こと[1][]

こと works as a pointer to a thing, a person, an action or an event.

I can say 会議(かいぎ)(わす)れていた, but it sometimes sounds too direct and may give an impression that I denied the value of the meeting. With こと I can indirectly make reference to the meeting and its circumstances: 会議(かいぎ)のことを(わす)れていた.

I would say it is a buffer or a cushion before connecting subject and object for a soft landing of a recognition.

あなたが()きです = I like/love you. vs. あなたのことが()きです ≒ I like/love about you.

Note: You don't have to use こと after a verb, but if you do, note that the verb has now become a noun, therefore takes -があります at the end! For example:


Omitting (てき)[]

It seems instead of 正確(せいかく)(てき) you can say: 正確(せいかく)発音(はつおん)できない。

Doing a Verb while Doing Another Verb with -て[]

彼は判断(はんだん)する。= He judges.
彼は()べて判断(はんだん)する。= He judges while eating / while doing the action of eating. (Note 'eating' is continuous, but 'eating' has no tense; it adopts the tense of its linked verb.)
彼は経験(けいけん)(もと)づいて判断(はんだん)する。= He judges while basing the judgment on experience. (also "...while doing the action of basing on experience.")
The Primary action is the main action; judging in this case.
The Secondary action is the action that is also being fulfilled. It has to end in -て. To be based on ... .

Verbs in this form can also take objects. In fact, both verbs can take an object:
彼はバナナを()べて裁判所(さいばんしょ)判断(はんだん)する。= He judges at the courtroom while eating a banana.


Lesson 1[]

  • 立場 (ta-chi-ba) = position / place
  • もしあなたが私の立場だったらどうしますか?(mo-shi-a-na-ta-ga-wa-ta-shi-no-ta-chi-ba-da-tta-ra-dō-shi-ma-su-ka) = What would you do if you were in my position?
  • あなたの立場を明確にすべきだ。(a-na-ta-no-ta-chi-ba-wo-mei-ka-ku-ni-su-be-ki-da) = You should make your position clear. ("You should explain clearly your position.")
  • 想像 / ご想像 (sō-zō / go-sō-zō) = imagination
  • 想像上 (sō-zō-jō) = imagination ?
  • それは君の想像にすぎない。(so-re-wa-ki-mi-no-sō-zō-ni-su-gi-nai) = That is nothing more than your imagination.
  • 後はご想像にお任せします。(a-to-wa-go-sō-zō-ni-o-ma-ka-se-shi-ma-su) = I leave the rest to your imagination. ("Concerning what is after, I leave the rest to your imagination.")
  • 主義のない (shu-gi-no-nai) = unprincipled
  • 彼は主義のない人が嫌いだ。(ka-re-wa-shu-gi-no-nai-hi-to-ga-ki-rai-da) = He does not like unprincipled people.
  • 社会主義者 (sha-kai-shu-gi-sha) = socialist
  • 経験 (kei-ken) = experience
  • 明確に (mei-ka-ku-ni) = clearly
  • 違いを明確に説明しなさい。(chi-gai-wo-mei-ka-ku-ni-se-tsu-mei-shi-na-sai) = Explain the difference clearly.
  • ...によろしく伝えてください (...-ni-yo-ro-shi-ku-tsu-ta-e-te-ku-da-sai) = Please convey my regards to ...
  • 心から感謝の気持ちをお伝えしたいと思います。(ko-ko-ro-ka-ra-kan-sha-no-ki-mo-chi-wo-o-tsu-ta-e-shi-tai-to-o-mo-i-ma-su) = I would like to convey my sincere feelings of appreciation. ("I think I want to convey appreciation's feelings from my heart.")
  • この深い悲しみをうまく伝える言葉が見つからない。(ko-no-fu-kai-ka-na-shi-mi-wo-u-ma-ku-tsu-ta-e-ru-ko-to-ba-ga-mi-tsu-ka-ra-nai) = I cannot find the words to properly convey this deep sorrow.
  • [想像力, 伝える, 伝えた]

Lesson 2[]

  • 実 (ji-tsu / mi) = real / true
  • 彼女たちは実の姉妹ではない。(ka-no-jo-ta-chi-wa-ji-tsu-no-shi-mai-de-wa-nai) = They are not real sisters.
  • 彼は嬉しそうだが、実は悲しいのだ。(ka-re-wa-u-re-shi-sō-da-ga-ji-tsu-wa-ka-na-shī-no-da) = He looks happy, but actually, he is sad.
  • 身一つで (mi-hi-to-tsu-de) = with no possession (lit. "by one body" / "with only my body = with nothing else")
  • 身一つで家を出ました。(mi-hi-to-tsu-de-ie-wo-de-ma-shi-ta) = I left home with nothing.
  • 身の危険を感じたらすぐに警察を呼びなさい。(mi-no-ki-ken-wo-kan-ji-ta-ra-su-gu-ni-kei-sa-tsu-wo-yo-bi-na-sai) = If you feel you are in danger, call the police immediately.
  • (verb)可能性がある ((verb)-ka-nō-sei-ga-a-ru) = there is a change of (verb)
  • 今夜は雨になる可能性がある。(kon-ya-wa-a-me-ni-na-ru-ka-nō-sei-ga-a-ru) = There is a possibility it will rain tonight. ("Tonight there exists a to-become-at-rain possibility.")
  • 民主 (min-shu) = democratic
  • 民主主義 (min-shu-shu-gi) = democracy
  • 民主化する (min-shi-ka-su-ru) = to democratise
  • 完全主義者 (kan-zen-shu-gi-sha) = perfectionist
  • 完全に (kan-zen-ni) = completely / totally
  • 今日の会議のことは完全に忘れていた。(kyō-no-kai-gi-no-ko-to-wa-kan-zen-ni-wa-su-re-te-i-ta) = I had completely forgotten about today's meeting. (Cf. Grammar Section for the meaning of ''.)
  • 体制 (tai-sei) = system
  • 反体制 (han-tai-sei) = dissident / anti-establishent / anti-system
  • 反体制の新聞は禁止された。(han-tai-sei-no-shim-bun-wa-kin-shi-sa-re-ta) = The dissident newspaper was banned.
  • 経済体制を民主化する必要がある。(kei-zai-tai-sei-wo-min-shu-ka-su-ru-hi-tsu-you-ga-a-ru) = We need to democratize the economic system.
  • [民主党]

Lesson 3[]

  • 論文 (rom-bun) = thesis
  • テーマ (tē-ma) = subject / topic ("theme")
  • 本のテーマは何ですか?(hon-no-tē-ma-wa-nan-de-su-ka) = What is the subject of the book?
  • 博士 (ha-ka-se) = PhD holder (also, "professor")
  • 博士号 (ha-ka-se-gō) = doctorate / PhD degree
  • 知識 (chi-shi-ki) = knowledge
  • 知識は一種の力だ。(chi-shi-ki-wa-i-sshu-no-chi-ka-ra-da) = Knowledge is a kind of power.
  • ...を書いた (...-wo-kai-ta) = I wrote ...
  • ...に関して (...-ni-kan-shi-te) = ..., about it
  • この問題に関して質問があります。(ko-no-mon-dai-ni-kan-shi-te-shi-tsu-mon-ga-a-ri-ma-su) = I have a question about this matter. ("This issue, about it, a question exists.")
  • 彼は動物に関する本を書いた。(ka-re-wa-dō-bu-tsu-ni-kan-su-ru-hon-wo-kai-ta) = He wrote a book about animals. ("Animals, book about them, he wrote.")

Lesson 4[]

  • 権利 (ken-ri) = right / rights
  • 権利は責任を伴う。(ken-ri-wa-se-ki-nin-wo-to-mo-na-u) = Rights come with responsibilities.
  • 君には私を批判する権利がない。(ki-mi-ni-wa-wa-ta-shi-wo-hi-han-su-ru-ken-ri-ga-nai) = You have no right to criticize me.
  • ...を失った (...-wo-u-shi-na-tta) = I lost ...
  • その男性は三人の息子のうち二人を戦争で失った。(so-no-dan-sei-wa-san-nin-no-mu-su-ko-no-u-chi-fu-ta-ri-wo-sen-sō-de-u-shi-na-tta) = That man lost two of his three sons in the war. (Possible literal translation: "That virile (that man), 3 sons of which, 2 sons is what he lost in the war.")
  • 哲学 (te-tsu-ga-ku) = philosophy
  • 哲学者 (te-tsu-ga-ku-sha) = philosopher
  • ...を支持します (...-wo-shi-ji-shi-ma-su) = We support ...
  • ...を期待している (...-wo-ki-tai-shi-te-i-ru) = We are expecting ...
  • 両親は私が試験に合格することを期待している。(ryō-shin-wa-wa-ta-shi-ga-shi-ken-ni-gō-ka-ku-su-ru-ko-to-wo-ki-tai-shi-te-i-ru) = My parents are expecting me to pass the exam. ("As for my parents, me, the act of passing at an exam, they are expecting.")
  • 人生に何を期待するの?(jin-sei-ni-na-ni-wo-ki-tai-su-ru-no) = What do you expect out of life?
  • 君の提案をいつも支持するとは期待しないで。(ki-mi-no-tei-an-wo-i-tsu-mo-shi-ji-su-ru-to-wa-ki-tai-shi-nai-de) = Do not expect me to always support your proposals.
  • 誰も彼の考えを支持しなかった。(da-re-mo-ka-re-no-kan-ga-e-wo-shi-ji-shi-na-ka-tta) = Nobody supported his ideas. ("Nobody didn't support his ideas.")
  • ...に反する (...-ni-han-su-ru) = it makes opposition to ...
  • その考えは私の主義に反する。(so-no-kan-ga-e-wa-wa-ta-shi-no-shu-gi-ni-han-su-ru) = That idea is against my principles.
  • A に反して B (A -ni-han-shi-te- B) = In contrast to A, B
  • 天気予報に反して雨が降り続いている。(ten-ki-yo-hō-ni-han-shi-te-a-me-ga-fu-ri-tsu-zui-te-i-ru) = In contrast to the weather forecast it is continuing to rain.
  • [失って]

Lesson 5[]

  • 状況 (jō-kyō) = the situation
  • 判断 (han-dan) = judgment / decision
  • 現在 (gen-zai) = current / status quo (also, currently)
  • 彼女は現在名古屋に住んでいる。(ka-no-jo-wa-gen-zai-na-go-ya-ni-sun-de-i-ru) = She currently lives in Nagoya.
  • 私の現在の住所 (wa-ta-shi-no-gen-zai-no-jū-sho) = my current address
  • 意識 (i-shi-ki) = consciousness
  • 無意識に (mu-i-shi-ki-ni) = unconsciously
  • 祖父は意識を回復した。(so-fu-wa-i-shi-ki-wo-kai-fu-ku-shi-ta) = My grandfather regained consciousness. ("...recovered consciousness.")
  • 彼は無意識にポケットのタバコを探してしまった。(ka-re-wa-mui-shi-ki-ni-po-ke-tto-no-ta-ba-ko-wo-sa-ga-shi-te-shi-ma-tta) = He ended up unconsciously reaching for a cigarette in his pocket.
  • 自分のしたことに罪の意識を感じている。(ji-bun-no-shi-ta-ko-to-ni-tsu-mi-no-i-shi-ki-wo-kan-ji-te-i-ru) = I feel a sense of guilt for what I did.
  • 正確 (sei-ka-ku) = accurate / correct
  • その単語を正確に発音できない。(so-no-tan-go-wo-sei-ka-ku-ni-ha-tsu-on-de-ki-nai) = I cannot pronounce that word correctly.

Lesson 6[]

  • 平等 (byō-dō) = equal
  • すべての動物は平等である。(su-be-te-no-dō-bu-tsu-wa-byō-dō-de-a-ru) = All animals are equal.
  • [Off Syllabus: ただし一部の動物は他のより平等である。(ta-da-shi-i-chi-bu-no-dō-bu-tsu-wa-ho-ka-no-yo-ri-byō-dō-de-a-ru) = However, some animals are more equal than others.]
  • 法の下に人間はすべて平等な権利がある。(hō-no-shi-ta-ni-nin-gen-wa-su-be-te-byō-dō-na-ken-ri-ga-a-ru) = All human beings have equal rights under the law.
  • 考え方 (kan-ga-e-ka-ta) = way of thinking
  • 考え方を示したかった。(kan-ga-e-ka-ta-wo-shi-me-shi-ta-ka-tta) = I wanted to share my way of thinking.
  • 賛成できません。(san-sei-de-ki-ma-sen) = I do not agree. ("I cannot agree") [For a stronger version, use 『賛成しない。』]
  • 事実 (ji-ji-tsu) = facts
  • だいぶ (dai-bu) = much / a lot
  • その患者はだいぶよくなってきた。(so-no-kan-ja-wa-dai-bu-yo-ku-na-tte-ki-ta) = The patient has gotten a lot better.
  • だいぶ前にお会いしたことありますね。(dai-bu-ma-e-ni-o-a-i-shi-ta-ko-to-ga-a-ri-ma-su-ne) = We met quite a while ago, didn't we?
  • ...に基づいている (...-ni-mo-to-dzu-i-te-i-ru) = it is based on ... / it is grounded upon ... / it pre-assumes ...
  • 民主主義は個人主義に基づいている。(min-shu-shu-gi-wa-ko-jin-shu-gi-ni-mo-to-zu-i-te-i-ru) = Democracy is based on individualism.
  • 彼は経験に基づいて判断する。(ka-re-wa-kei-ken-ni-mo-to-zu-i-te-han-dan-su-ru) = He judges based on experience.

Lesson 7[]

  • 他人 (ta-nin) = other people
  • 他人に親切にしなさい。(ta-nin-ni-shin-se-tsu-ni-shi-na-sai) = Be kind to other people.
  • 他人に迷惑をかけてはいけない。(ta-nin-ni-mei-wa-ku-wo-ka-ke-te-wa-i-ke-nai) = You must not bother other people.
  • 地獄とは他人である。(ji-go-ku-to-wa-ta-nin-de-a-ru) = Hell is other people.
  • 尊重する (son-chō-su-ru) = to respect
  • ...など (...-na-do) = something like ...
  • これなどはいかがですか?(ko-re-na-do-wa-i-ka-ga-de-su-ka) = How about something like this?
  • 人権 (jin-ken) = human rights
  • 基本 (ki-hon) = fundamental
  • 読むのは基本だ。(yo-mu-no-wa-ki-hon-da) = Reading is fundamental.
  • 基本的人権を守らなければならない。(ki-hon-te-ki-jin-ken-wo-ma-mo-ri-ra-na-ke-re-ba-na-ra-nai) = We must protect fundamental human rights.
  • ...がなくなった (...-ga-na-ku-na-tta) = ... is missing
  • 私のハンカチがなくなった。(wa-ta-shi-no-han-ka-chi-ga-na-ku-na-tta) = My handkerchief is missing.
  • 彼は酒を飲んで意識がなくなった。(ka-re-wa-sa-ke-wo-non-de-i-shi-ki-ga-na-ku-na-tta) = He lost consciousness after drinking alcohol.
  • 電池がなくなった。(den-chi-ga-na-ku-na-tta) = The battery ran out.
  • [なくなり, なくならない]