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Economics is the 100th skill (assuming read left to right) in the Japanese language course. It has 6 lessons.

Grammar Notes[]

Summarize, but do not quote, any grammar notes provided with this skill. Notes from Duolingo are copyrighted, and cannot be added here verbatim without permission. Make sure to reference any tips and notes from Duolingo or anywhere else.

To Do with the Intention Of ...[]

...を(はなし)()いたい = I want to meet ... with the intention of talking


話します = I talk
合います = I meet
話します合います = I meet to talk ("I talk meet someone")

Connecting Sentences with 'And' (using -て、)[]

Most connects we've done is with 'と'. 「サラとミラ」= Sara and Mila.

But this 'and' actually means with. 「サラとミラと病院(びょういん)()きます。」= I go to the hospital with Sara and Mila. ("...with Sara with Mila.")

To connect two sentences we use 「...て、...」(a 'て' and a 'comma').

天気(てんき)(わる)い。(やま)()きない。= The weather is bad. I will not go to the mountains.

天気が悪くて、山に行きない。= The weather is bad and I will not go to the mountains. (I'm not saying "..therefore I will not go.."; I'm simply saying that both statements are true.)

(Please note that -い adjectives become -く in front of -て. 悪い → 悪くて、...)

Exception to the rule: Consider Skill: Authority, Lesson 2[1]. Last sentence.

Using a Verb as an Adjective[]

値引(ねび)きされた商品(しょうひん) = a discounted product


Lesson 1[]

  • これら (ko-re-ra) = these
  • これらの本は私のです。(ko-re-ra-no-hon-wa-wa-ta-shi-no-de-su) = These books are mine.
  • これらの本を地元の図書館で借りた。(ko-re-ra-no-hon-wo-ji-mo-to-no-to-sho-kan-de-ka-ri-ta) = I borrowed these books from the local library.
  • これらのサラダはすべて新鮮な野菜を含んでいる。(ko-re-ra-no-sa-ra-da-wa-su-be-te-shin-sen-na-ya-sai-wo-fu-kun-de-i-ru) = All of these salads contain fresh vegetables.
  • いくつか (i-ku-tsu-ka) = some / a few
  • いくつか質問があります。(i-ku-tsu-ka-shi-tsu-mon-ga-a-ri-ma-su) = I have some questions.
  • 私はいくつかのジャガイモを鍋で茹でた。(wa-ta-shi-wa-i-ku-tsu-ka-no-ja-gai-mo-wo-na-be-de-yu-de-ta) = I boiled some potatoes in a pot.
  • 扱い方 (a-tsu-kai-ka-ta) = the method of operation ("the method of dealing with [...]")
  • 彼女に機械の扱い方を教えてもらった。(ka-no-jo-ni-ki-kai-no-a-tsu-kai-ka-ta-wo-o-shi-e-te-mo-ra-tta) = I got her to teach me how to operate the machine. ("...how to deal with the machine.")
  • この店は中古品だけを扱っている。(ko-no-mi-se-wa-chū-ko-hin-da-ke-wo-a-tsu-ka-tte-i-ru) = This store only deals in secondhand goods.
  • 販売 (ham-bai) = sale / sales
  • 販売中 (ham-bai-chū) = for sale ("in the process of selling" / "in the middle of selling")
  • その店ではおいしいパンが販売中です。(so-no-mi-se-de-wa-oi-shii-pan-ga-ham-bai-chū-de-su) = That shop has delicious bread for sale.
  • 販売競争は物価を下げる。(ham-bai-kyō-sō-wa-bu-kka-wo-sa-ge-ru) = Sales competition lowers prices.
  • 中古 (chū-ko) = used / second-hand
  • 中古のパソコンを買った。(chū-ko-no-pa-so-kon-wo-ka-tta) = I bought a used computer.
  • 中古品 (chū-ko-hin) = second-hand goods
  • 中古車 (chū-ko-sha) = second-hand car
  • 見本 (mi-hon) = sample
  • 見本をいただけますか?(mi-hon-wo-i-ta-da-ke-ma-su-ka) = May I have a sample?
  • [販売員]

Lesson 2[]

  • ただで (ta-da-de) = for free ("free, in the manner thereof")
  • この自転車をただでもらった。(ko-no-ji-ten-sha-wo-ta-da-de-mo-ra-tta) = I got this bicycle for free.
  • 消費 (shō-hi) = consumption
  • 消費税 (shō-hi-zei) = consumption tax
  • 価格には消費税が含まれていません。 (ka-ka-ku-ni-wa-shō-hi-zei-ga-fu-ku-ma-re-te-i-ma-sen) = The price does not include consumption tax. ("The price, at it, tax consumption is not included.")
  • 増加している (zō-ka-shi-te-i-ru) = it is increasing
  • 減少している (gen-shō-shi-te-i-ru) = it is decreasing (also, falling)
  • お酒の消費が五パーセント増加した。(o-sa-ke-no-shō-hi-ga-go-pā-sen-to-zō-ka-shi-ta) = Alcohol consumption increased by five percent. [Notice the absence of で—it doesn't say 五パーセント増加した]
  • 価格 (ka-ka-ku) = price / value
  • 価格に関して話し合いたいんですが。(ka-ka-ku-ni-kan-shi-te-ha-na-shi-ai-tain-de-su-ga) = I would like to discuss the price. ("It is that I would like to meet to talk about prices.")
  • 手に入れた (te-ni-i-re-ta) = I got it ("It entered at hand (entered into hand)")
  • ただで手に入れた。(ta-da-de-te-ni-i-re-ta) = I got it for free. ("It entered my hand in a free manner.")
  • 彼は私にテニスの試合のチケットを手に入れてくれた。(ka-re-wa-wa-ta-shi-ni-te-ni-su-no-shi-ai-no-chi-ke-tto-wo-te-ni-i-re-te-ku-re-ta) = He got me a ticket for the tennis match. ("He caused(?) at me a match of tennis's ticket to enter hand.")
  • [手に入れて, 手に入れる]

Lesson 3[]

  • 贅沢に (zei-ta-ku-ni) = luxuriously
  • 贅沢品 (zei-ta-ku-hin) = luxurious goods
  • エアコンは贅沢品ではないと思う。(e-a-kon-wa-zei-ta-ku-hin-de-wa-nai-to-o-mo-u) = I think that an air conditioner is not a luxury item.
  • 彼氏は食べ物には贅沢している。(ka-re-shi-wa-ta-be-mo-no-ni-wa-zei-ta-ku-shi-te-i-ru) = My boyfriend splurges on food.
  • 特売 (to-ku-bai) = sale / discount
  • 特売中 (to-ku-bai-chū) = on sale ("in the midst of sale / discount")
  • これを特売で手に入れた。(ko-re-wo-to-ku-bai-de-te-ni-i-re-ta) = I got this on sale.
  • 独占権 (do-ku-sen-ken) = monopoly
  • その会社は石油販売の独占権を持っている。(so-no-kai-sha-wa-se-ki-yu-ham-bai-no-do-ku-sen-ken-wo-mo-tte-i-ru) = That company has a monopoly on oil sales.
  • 彼はその部屋を独占していた。(ka-re-wa-so-no-he-ya-wo-do-ku-sen-shi-te-i-ta) = He had that room all to himself. ("He monopolised that room.")
  • 売り上げ (u-ri-a-ge) = sales
  • 売り上げが二十パーセント増加した。(u-ri-a-ge-ga-ha-ni-ju-ppā-sen-to-zō-ka-shi-ta) = Sales rose by twenty percent.
  • 先月は売り上げが落ちた。(sen-ge-tsu-wa-u-ri-a-ge-ga-o-chi-ta) = Sales fell last month.

Lesson 4[]

  • によって (ni-yo-tte) = by / at (more formal than に)
  • 書類は弁護士によって作成されている。(sho-rui-wa-ben-go-shi-ni-yo-tte-sa-ku-sei-sa-re-te-i-ru) = The document is being written up / being drafted by the lawyer.
  • ...による (...-ni-yo-ru) = it depends on ... ("to depend on ...") [よる is a verb]
  • 値段は大きさによる。(ne-dan-wa-ō-ki-sa-ni-yo-ru) = The price depends on the size.
  • 事故は彼の不注意によるものだった。(ji-ko-wa-ka-re-no-fu-chū-i-ni-yo-ru-mo-no-da-tta) = The accident was due to his carelessness. ("...it was a dependant-on-his-non-carefulness thing." also "...dependant-at-his-non-carefulness...")
  • 私たちはその村に水を供給した。(wa-ta-shi-ta-chi-wa-so-no-mu-ra-ni-mi-zu-wo-kyō-kyū-shi-ta) = We supplied water to that village.
  • 需要 (ju-yō) = demand
  • 製品 (sei-hin) = products / appliances
  • 新製品 (shin-sei-hin) = new products / appliances
  • その新製品は宣伝不足だ。(so-no-shin-sei-hin-wa-sen-den-fu-so-ku-da) = There is a lack of advertising for that new product. (For that new product, there is a publicity deficiency.)
  • 宣伝 (sen-den) = publicity
  • [より]

Lesson 5[]

  • 利益 (ri-e-ki) = profit
  • 商売 (shō-bai) = business / trade
  • 山口さんは商売で大きな利益を得た。(ya-ma-ku-chi-san-wa-shō-bai-de-ō-ki-na-ri-e-ki-wo-e-ta) = Ms. Yamaguchi made a large profit in business. ("...got a large profit.")
  • 商売の調子はどう?(shō-bai-no-chō-shi-wa-dō) = How is your business doing? ("Your business's condition, how is?")
  • 商品 (shō-hin) = product / item
  • 景気 (kei-ki) = the economy
  • 景気が悪くて、商品が売れません。(kei-ki-ga-wa-ru-ku-te-shō-hin-ga-u-re-ma-sen) = The economy is bad, and the products do not sell well.
  • 売れる (u-re-ru) = it sells ("it sells itself" / "it is sold")
  • 新しい商品がよく売れるといい。(a-ta-ra-shī-shō-hin-ga-yo-ku-u-re-ru-to-ī) = I hope that the new products will sell well.
  • 彼女は家を売って一億円の利益を得た。(ka-no-jo-wa-i-e-wo-u-tte-i-chi-o-ku-en-no-ri-e-ki-wo-e-ta) = She sold her house and made a profit of one hundred million yen. ("She got one hundred ... while selling her house.")

Lesson 6[]

  • 資金 (shi-kin) = funds
  • 資金が切れた。(shi-kin-ga-ki-re-ta) = Our funds have run out.
  • 失業中 (shi-tsu-gyō-chū) = unemployed ("in the midst of unemployment")
  • 現在彼は失業中だ。(gen-zai-ka-re-wa-shi-tsu-gyō-chū-da) = Currently he is unemployed.
  • 失業率 (shi-tsu-gyō-ri-tsu) = unemployment rate
  • そのレストランは素晴らしいサービスを提供してくれた。(so-no-re-su-to-ran-wa-su-ba-ra-shī-sā-bi-su-wo-tei-kyō-shi-te-ku-re-ta) = That restaurant offered us excellent service.
  • 事業 (ji-gyō) = business
  • 事業を始めました。(ji-gyō-wo-ha-ji-me-ma-shi-ta) = I started a business.
  • 新事業 (shin-ji-gyō) = new businesses
  • 新事業の資金集めをした。(shin-ji-gyō-no-shi-kin-a-tsu-me-wo-shi-ta) = We did fundraising for the new business. ("We did the new business's fundraising.")
  • 資本 (shi-hon) = capital / funds /assets
  • 企業 (ki-gyō) = corporation / enterprise / business
  • 彼女はその企業に投資した。(ka-no-jo-wa-so-no-ki-gyō-ni-tou-shi-shi-ta) = She invested in that corporation. ("...invested at...")
  • 大企業 (dai-ki-gyō) = a large corporation
  • [失業]