Verbs: Perfect 1 is the sixty-eighth (assuming left to right) skill in the German language tree. In the six lessons of this skill, the learner of German is introduced to one way of forming the past tense: the present perfect. The present perfect is much more common in regular speech and is significantly easier than the preterite.

Grammar notesEdit

How to make the PerfectEdit

The perfect has two parts: the helping verb (haben or sein) and the past participle. The choice of haben or sein will depend on the choice of participle: those that take sein do not have objects or describe a change in location or condition, while those that take haben are all of the rest.

The conjugation of haben or sein will depend on the subject, and will be conjugated in the present. The participle will be placed at the end of the sentence.

Weak participles are formed by taking the stem and adding ge- to the front and -(e)t to the end. For example, spielen becomes gespielt. Verbs with separable prefixes will have the prefixes before the ge-; verbs with inseparable prefixes will replace the ge-. Verbs ending in -ieren will not take the ge- at all.

Strong participles are formed from a changed stem, end in -en, or both. For example, finden becomes gefunden. These will have to be memorized.


Lesson 1Edit

  • gegessen = eaten
  • gesehen = seen
  • gelesen = read
  • gelernt = learned
  • geschlafen = slept
  • gespielt = played

Lesson 2Edit

  • gegeben = given
  • behalten = kept
  • erfahren = found out
  • veröffentlicht = published
  • verbessert = improved
  • beraten = advised
  • besucht = visited

Lesson 3Edit

From this point on, there will be a mix of participles taking sein and haben. Before, they will all take haben.

  • gestohlen = stolen
  • geschrieben = written
  • geschwommen = swum
  • gelaufen = walked
  • geworden = become
  • gekommen = come
  • gefragt = asked

Lesson 4Edit

  • interessiert = interested
  • informiert = informed
  • verletzt = injured
  • gegangen = gone
  • erzählt = told
  • gerannt = run
  • gewesen = been
  • gefallen = fallen

Lesson 5Edit

  • getrunken = drunk
  • gehabt = had
  • gekocht = cooked
  • gesprochen = spoken
  • gemacht = made
  • gefunden = found
  • gesucht = searched

Lesson 6Edit

  • gesagt = said
  • gemocht = liked
  • gestellt = placed
  • verkauft = sold
  • bestellt = ordered
  • geladen = loaded
  • vergessen = forgot


Duolingo Lesson:

Canoo and Verbix have charts that list the present perfect conjugations for verbs, as well as their preterites.

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