Accusative Case is the fifth skill (assuming reads left to right) in the German language tree. It contains six lessons that teach the case mentioned in the title, as well as the verbs "to have," "to eat," "to read," and "to drink."
In English, there are two sets of pronouns; one group is for subjects and the other is for objects. This is what is called a grammatical case.
In German, case is probably one of the most difficult things that you will have to learn. This is because case not only affects pronouns, but nouns, articles, determiners, adjectives, etc.
There are four cases, but we'll just learn the easiest two for now; the nominative and the accusative.
The nominative case is the case you learned in Basics 1. This case covers the subjects of a sentence, as well as something called the predicate nominative (aka anything following the verb "to be").
The accusative case is remarkably similar, and is used for direct objects (objects that are directly receiving the action). The declination (fancy word meaning how the case looks) is very similar, with only one difference: The masculine nouns have den as their definite article and einen as their indefinite article. A couple of words (such as Junge) will also gain an -n.
Essen is an irregular verb. It has a change in the 2nd person singular and the 3rd person singular:
|er, sie, es||isst|
Isst or ist?Edit
As can be seen in the above table, the conjugation for the 3rd person is isst. But this sounds exactly like ist. The solution is context. If the person you're talking to is not an apple, then clearly she/he is eating an apple. Also, case helps a lot. It would be Er isst den Apfel, if he is eating the apple, but Er ist der Apfel. if he actually is an apple.
The verb haben is very irregular, and its forms should be memorized.
|er, sie, es||hat|
- trinken = to drink (regular)
- die Milch = milk
- essen = to eat (conjugation above)
- der Apfel = apple
- einen = a/an
- lesen = to read (2nd and 3rd person: liest)
- die Zeitung = newspaper
- das Buch = book
- die Bücher = books
- den = the (masculine accusative)
- haben = to have (conjugation above)
Duolingo Lesson: www.duolingo.com/skill/de/Accusative-Case