Duolingo Wiki
Duolingo Wiki

Plural is the 8th skill (assuming read left to right) of the Czech language tree. It has 7 lessons which teach the typical patterns of plural formation in the Czech language and some irregular forms.

Grammar Notes[]

Hard and non-hard Consonants[]

Soft consonants are: č, ď, ň, ř, š, ť, ž, c, and j. The others can be considered non-soft. With an -i or -í ending during plural formation, these non-soft consonants undergo a shift (for masculine animate):

  • h -> z
  • ch -> š
  • k -> c
  • r -> ř

In addition, hard consonants d, t, and n will sound like ď, ť, and ň when followed by an i (or í or ě).

Masculine animate nouns[]

Two typical patterns of plural formation involve adding an -i:

  • muž -> muži (soft consonant)
  • kluk -> kluci (non-soft consonant)

Masculine inanimate nouns[]

Two typical patterns of plural formation for masculine inanimate nouns are:

  • stroj -> stroje (soft consonant)
  • hrad -> hrady (non-soft consonant)

Feminine nouns[]

Three patterns of plural formation for feminine nouns are typical:

  • žena -> ženy
  • ulice -> ulice
  • věc -> věci

Neuter nouns[]

Three patterns of plural formation for neuter nouns are typical:

  • město -> města
  • zvíře -> zvířata (also nouns -ě)
  • náměstí -> náměstí

Plurals of the demonstrative adjective ten[]

  • ti muži = the men, those men (masc. animate)
  • ty stromy = the trees, those trees (masc. inanimate)
  • ty dívky = the girls, those girls (feminine)
  • ta zvířata = the animals, those animals (neuter)


Adjectives also transform in the same way to agree with the nouns they modify in terms of number and person but not gender. See the skill Food.


Plurals of previously learned nouns (formed according to the patterns above) and similarly inflected plural adjectives are not shown.

Lesson 1[]

  • lidé = person (irreg. plural for člověk = person)
  • ty/ti = those/these

Lesson 2[]

  • ted' = now
  • domy = houses (irreg. plural for dům. Note vowel shortening ů to o)

Lesson 3[]

  • ulice = streets
  • vysocí/vysoké = masc. animate and inanimate plural tall (from singular vysoký)

Lesson 4[]

  • dlouhé = long (masc. inanimate. From singular dlouhý)
  • noci = nights (fem. from singular noc)
  • vety = sentences (fem. from singular věta)
  • dny = days (masc. irreg. from singular den)
  • kratké = short ((masc. inanimate. From singular kratký)

Lesson 5[]

  • ta = these/those
  • slova = words (neut. From singular slovo)

Lesson 6[]

  • osoby = people (fem. From singular osoba)
  • tady = here
  • jména = names (neut. From singular jméno)

Lesson 7[]

  • hoši = boys (masc. anim. From singular hoch, hard consonant)