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Plural is the 8th skill (assuming read left to right) of the Czech language tree. It has 7 lessons which teach the typical patterns of plural formation in the Czech language and some irregular forms.

Grammar Notes[]

Hard and non-hard Consonants[]

Soft consonants are: č, ď, ň, ř, š, ť, ž, c, and j. The others can be considered non-soft. With an -i or -í ending during plural formation, these non-soft consonants undergo a shift (for masculine animate):

  • h -> z
  • ch -> š
  • k -> c
  • r -> ř

In addition, hard consonants d, t, and n will sound like ď, ť, and ň when followed by an i (or í or ě).

Masculine animate nouns[]

Two typical patterns of plural formation involve adding an -i:

  • muž -> muži (soft consonant)
  • kluk -> kluci (non-soft consonant)

Masculine inanimate nouns[]

Two typical patterns of plural formation for masculine inanimate nouns are:

  • stroj -> stroje (soft consonant)
  • hrad -> hrady (non-soft consonant)

Feminine nouns[]

Three patterns of plural formation for feminine nouns are typical:

  • žena -> ženy
  • ulice -> ulice
  • věc -> věci

Neuter nouns[]

Three patterns of plural formation for neuter nouns are typical:

  • město -> města
  • zvíře -> zvířata (also nouns -ě)
  • náměstí -> náměstí

Plurals of the demonstrative adjective ten[]

  • ti muži = the men, those men (masc. animate)
  • ty stromy = the trees, those trees (masc. inanimate)
  • ty dívky = the girls, those girls (feminine)
  • ta zvířata = the animals, those animals (neuter)

Adjectives[]

Adjectives also transform in the same way to agree with the nouns they modify in terms of number and person but not gender. See the skill Food.

Lessons[]

Plurals of previously learned nouns (formed according to the patterns above) and similarly inflected plural adjectives are not shown.

Lesson 1[]

  • lidé = person (irreg. plural for člověk = person)
  • ty/ti = those/these

Lesson 2[]

  • ted' = now
  • domy = houses (irreg. plural for dům. Note vowel shortening ů to o)

Lesson 3[]

  • ulice = streets
  • vysocí/vysoké = masc. animate and inanimate plural tall (from singular vysoký)

Lesson 4[]

  • dlouhé = long (masc. inanimate. From singular dlouhý)
  • noci = nights (fem. from singular noc)
  • vety = sentences (fem. from singular věta)
  • dny = days (masc. irreg. from singular den)
  • kratké = short ((masc. inanimate. From singular kratký)

Lesson 5[]

  • ta = these/those
  • slova = words (neut. From singular slovo)

Lesson 6[]

  • osoby = people (fem. From singular osoba)
  • tady = here
  • jména = names (neut. From singular jméno)

Lesson 7[]

  • hoši = boys (masc. anim. From singular hoch, hard consonant)

References[]


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